Biodiesel has gained widespread importance in recent years as an alternative, renewable liquid transportation fuel. It is derived from natural triglycerides in the presence of an alcohol and an alkali catalyst via a transesterification reaction. To date, transesterification based on the use of chemical catalysts has been predominant for biodiesel production at the industrial scale due to its high conversion efficiency at reasonable cost. Recently, biocatalytic transesterification has received considerable attention due to its favorable conversion rate and relatively simple downstream processing demands for the recovery of by‐products and purification of biodiesel.
Biocatalysis of the transesterification reaction using commercially purified lipase represents a major cost constraint. However, more cost‐effective techniques based on the immobilization of both extracellular and intracellular lipases on support materials facilitate the reusability of the catalyst. Other variables, including the presence of alcohol, glycerol and the activity of water can profoundly affect lipase activity and stability during the reaction. This review evaluates the current status for lipase biocatalyst‐mediated production of biodiesel, and identifies the key parameters affecting lipase activity and stability. Pioneer studies on reactor‐based lipase conversion of triglycerides are presented
A core is a device used in casting and molding processes to produce internal cavities and reentrant angles and is normally a disposable item that is destroyed to get it out of the piece. Such cores are painted individually with graphite paint to create a fine surface finish in the castings, To improve the productivity a fixture can be used to huge numbers of cores simultaneously to reduce production time and improve production rate.
Carbon bearings have been in use at ‘Salalah Methanol Company’ to lift the waste water, and to supply it to the treatment plant. The bearings have been a part of vertical centrifugal pump that supplies the water to the treatment plant. In the process of transferring, there persists a frequent breakdown of the bearings and needs a replacement once in every two months. Thus, the project aims towards analyzing the cause of failure of these bearings.